Anonima Chronology


Frank Hewitt meets Ed Mieczkowski at Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburg, PA. Hewitt is an undergraduate and Mieczkowski is getting his masters degree.


Ernst Benkert and Hewitt meet at Oberlin College where Benkert has a teaching assistantship and Hewitt arrives to pursue master's degree. Hewitt introduces Benkert to Mieczkowski.


Frank Hewitt meets Karen Kurzband, future anonima collaborator, at Oberlin. Benkert befriends Donald Judd, who is teaching with him at Allen-Stevenson School in New York. Benkert is teaching English, while Judd is teaching carpentry.



Benkert, Hewitt, Mieczkowski form group and work in Springs, Long Island in Benkert's studio with Karen Kurzband. First concentrated work with systematic perceptual concerns.

Benkert marries Lisa Woods and lives in New York

Hewitt and Mieczkowski teach advanced painting class at Cleveland Institute of Art where they continue to teach until 1964.



Hewitt, "The First and Last Manifesto of George B. Morrison," Polemic VII(Western Reserve University), p12

Hewitt, "Reassessment of the Surface and Subsequent Implications for Contemporary Painting," CurrentV.1, N.2(Cleveland Institute of Art), pp.5-8

Hewitt and Kurzband marry.

Kurzband (now Karen Hewitt) joins Frank Hewitt in Cleveland.

Hewitt and Mieczkowski develop Dimensional Drawing class at Cleveland Institute.


Group at Benkert's studio(Springs, L.I.) working cooperatively


Sculptor David Smith tells Benkert at dinner, "We did all that in the 30s. Why do it again?"

Benkert moves to Paris for winter.



First Anonima Exhibition is in Cleveland in November:

Recent Development in Visual Design: Perception and Constructs. Group exhibition including Emilio Grossi(photographs) and Karen Hewitt(moterized construction) at Anonima Group's 10021 Gallery, Cleveland, Ohio

Frank Hewitt attends Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and begins course work inaesthetics and art history.

Benkert visits with youngest De Stijl member, Cesar Domela.

While living in London, Benkert has four paintings executed in enamel according to plan by sign painter.



Group working cooperatively at E. A. Benkert's studio, Mill Spring, North Carolina


In-Out 10021 Group Publication(contributions by Benkert, Hewitt, Mieczkowski, Grossi) Cleveland.



Hewitt, Mieczkowski Drawings, Group Gallery, 10021 Gallery, Cleveland, Ohio


Anonima (Vol.1, No.2) Anonima Group publication. Contributions by Benkert, Hewitt, Mieczkowski, Reid, Weinberg. New York

Paintings and Drawings and a Motorized Construction by K. Hewitt, Anonima Gallery(23 W.56th St., New York)

Review in New York Times.

Panel Discussion, "Geometry and Art," moderated by Charles Parkhurst. Panel members:Hewitt, Mieczkowski, Benkert, Donald Judd, Anthony Hill


"Op art: Pictures that Attack the Eye," Time Magazine, V.84, N.17(October 23, 1964), pp.42-48.


Anonima Group included in Mouvement II, Galerie Denise Rene, Paris

Frank and Karen Hewitt live in Amsterdam and London.

Frank Hewitt is visiting professor at Bath Academy of Art in Corsham, England



Sidney Tillim, "Optical Art: Pending or Ending?" Arts Magazine, V. 39, N. 4. (January 1965)pp.16-23.

Anonima Group included in Vibrations Eleven, Martha Jackson Gallery, New York


Anonima Group included inThe Responsive Eye, The Museum of Modern Art, New York


Anonima Group included in 1 =1 = 3, University Art Museum, The University of Texas, Austin


Anonima Group included in Optics, Illusion and Art, University of Kansas Museum of Art, Lawrence, Kansas

Anonima Group included in Nebraska Art Association Annual


Anonima Group included in Exposition Nove Tendencije 3, Zagreb, Yugoslavia


Group works at E.A. Benkert studio, Mill Springs, North Carolina

Hewitt takes job as adjunct professor at Cooper Union in New York where he stays until 1970. Hewitt befriends Ad Reinhardt.

Benkert has tea with Polish old master Constructivist Henryk Stazewski and five scotch discussion with Burgoyne Diller about El Lissistzky.

Frank and Karen Hewitt buy 100 acres in East Corinth, Vermont.



Black/White and Gray Paintings 24" Square, Anonima Group show at painting loft and Anonima Group Gallery, 40 W.28th St., New York


Anonima Group, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, England


Anonima Group included in New Tendency 4, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.


Anonima Group USA, Gallery Foksal, Warsaw, Poland

Hewitt takes job as adjunct professor at Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, NY where he stays for one year.



Perceptual Inquiry 1: Overlap, Anonima publication and show at Anonima Studio/Gallery, 40 West 28th St., New York


Anonima Gallery Show: G.Nichols, G.Herdman, R. Postma.

Anonima Group, Exhibition at Wooster School, Carmel, New York



Anonima included in The Square in Painting (organized by Richard Anuskiewicz for American Federation of Art).

Anonima included in Plus By Minus:Today?s Half Century, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY


Perceptual Inquiry II: Relative Size Change, Anonima Group exhibition at Anonima Studio/Gallery, 40 West 28th St., New York. Benkert, Hewitt, and Mieczkowski and motorized construction by Karen Hewitt


Art Research Center Group Exhibition at Anonima Gallery, 40 W. 28th St., New York (Thogmartin, T. Stephens, Van Voorst, Chase, Abblick, N.Stephens)

Frank Hewitt is actives in the Art Workers Coalition. He also made assistant professor of art and director of evening session at Cooper Union.



Anonima Gallery Show: R. Amend, G. Williams, J. Cooper


Minority Report #1, Anonima Group statement with Gerry Herdman, read to Howard Wise at Howard Wise Gallery


Anonima Group Exhibit: Brightness Ratio, Anonima Gallery, 40 W.28th St. New York


Minority Report #2, Anonima Group statement with Gerry Herdman in Documenta I(Art Workers Coalition) Museum of Modern Protest


Anonima Group, College Art Gallery, State University of New York at New Paltz

Final phase, ?Light and Shade?, of Anonima Groups four year plan aborted.


Anonima Group Retrospective Show, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

Frank Hewitt gets teaching position at the University of Vermont. Karen and Frank Hewitt move to Vermont where they stay through Frank Hewitt's death in 1991 at the age of 56.